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Breathing toxic smog in the world’s most polluted places is like smoking 50 cigarettes a day!

 

The New York Times  reveals that 20 million residents in New Delhi, India are wading through the worst smog the city has seen in 17 years.  Air quality reports indicate that the levels of the most dangerous pollutant, PM 2.5,  have skyrocketed to 70 times what the World Health Organization considers safe (12 to 16 times the limit that India’s own government considers safe). Experts say that the damage from exposure to PM 2.5 is the equivalent of smoking 50 cigarettes a day.  The Indian Medical Association has declared a state of medical emergency, urging residents to remain indoors. But in a city where most do not have the luxury of taking time off of work, people have no choice but to risk exposure to the pollutants.

Some in the Gurgaon area near Delhi. By Saurabh Kumar (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Smog in the Gurgaon area near Delhi. By Saurabh Kumar (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 wikicommons

According to Epa.gov, PM 2.5 are fine, inhalable particles whose diameters are 2.5 micrometers and smaller. When inhaled, tiny particulates can become lodged in breathing passageways, triggering asthma and other cardio-pulmonary illnesses. A recent article published by the Lancet‘s Commission on Public Health indicates that pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and death in the world today— responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths in 2015. These rates particularly affect low-income and middle-income countries where 92-percent of pollution-related deaths occur.  In 2015, an estimated 2.5 million Indian people died from exposure to air pollutants. With the annual increase in levels of air pollution, that number is only expected to rise.

History of Smog

The word smog is derived from a combination of smoke and fog (Smoke +Fog= SMOG — genius! )

During the Industrial Revolution, large cities like London provided the setting for the technological, cultural, and economic changes illustrative of the time.  In the early industrial age, British production depended almost entirely on a single fuel source: coal. Coal was used to warm homes, power steam engines, and turn the wheels of industry.  Though unregulated coal burning obscured the skies in industrial cities, it took over two centuries for Europeans to recognize the health hazards related to its atmospheric pollution. During the Great Smog of 1952, coal pollution blanketed the city of London, England in a veil of darkness that forced the closure of city streets, railways, and airports. In the span of one week, more than 4,000 people died from respiratory illnesses and policymakers were forced to act. In the weeks to follow, an estimated total of 12,000 people were victims of the polluted air.

Where does India’s pollution come from?

The Indian government faults emissions from vehicles, factories, power plants, and construction as the main contributors to this winter’s horrible smog. Since last year’s record-breaking smog, New Delhi residents have called for increased regulation and policies that would help regulate emissions, but progress has been slow. At the 2015 Paris agreement to address climate change, India promised to curb emissions by moving away from fossil fuels.  However, they face a great challenge as 30-percent of the population still does not have access to what is now considered a basic need: electricity. While the demand for inexpensive power begins to rise, areas within South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa— two regions of the globe with the least access to electricity— have become targets for renewable growth. But with renewable energy costs nowhere near as affordable as fossil fuel energy, one wonders how these lower-income areas will be able to move towards development.

Sulfer dioxide emissions. By Brocken Inaglory, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17778985

Sulfer dioxide emissions. By Brocken Inaglory, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17778985

Let’s get one thing straight: air pollution is not isolated to India— it is happening worldwide.  China, the US, and India are the top three emitters of greenhouse gases, and while China takes the lead— if you examine the per capita (per person) pollution rate— the US more than doubles China’s emissions rate. Climate experts say there is no room for emissions in developing countries to reach the high levels that have been typical of wealthier countries. Fossil fuel generated electricity— the largest single source of greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide— would only intensify current levels of pollution. One potential solution for this growing concern came from the 2015 Paris agreement which responds to the threat of global climate change with the goal of lowering global temperature to  pre-industrial levels. The agreement recognized that the poorest countries cannot afford to invest in renewable energy on their own and has promised extensive financial and technical help to them.  As the US pulls its support from the climate agreement, it remains to be seen how much help will be given to the developing countries from other UN nations.

Busy street in Nepal shrouded in smog. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi

Busy street in Nepal shrouded in smog. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi

In addition to vehicular and industrial emissions, the practices of clearing green spaces and burning croplands has also contributed to the decline in air quality in New Delhi. For farmers in India and neighboring Pakistan, crop burning is the traditional way to dispose of leftovers after their late-October harvest. Fire is used to quickly clear fields of wheat, rice and sugarcane for replanting and some believe the char is ideal for re-growth. However, the smoke that often rises over Delhi is anything but ideal.  During the winter, there is little wind and the capital is most vulnerable to toxic smog.

Rice crop burning in India. https://upload.wikimedia.org/

Rice crop burning in India. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia

 

How can you help?

A fix to the greenhouse gas emission crisis that we face is not the work of one person. It will require working together on a global scale to implement changes. Here are a few things you can do in your own life to make a difference:

  1. Recycle waste, reduce consumption, REUSE! If you are going to buy something that is disposable, try to get more than one use out of it. Sew a small tear in your clothing and take your shoes, wallet, or purse to a repair shop before you decide to toss them.
  2. Participate in your local food system. Shop local farmers markets and CSA’s and help cut the estimated 13% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production and transportation of food.
  3. Carpool when you can. Ride your bike. Walk to close destinations.
  4. Get to know the place where you live so well that you want to protect it. Attend city council meetings when an area is marked for development. Get involved and ask questions, such as how many trees will remain as green belt space to increase the   production of oxygen.
  5. Support organizations that work to better the planet.

Odin The Brave- A Tale Of Friendship And Survival Amid The Horrors Of A Wildfire

Northern California firefighters have spent the last week battling 14 separate infernos that claimed the lives of over 40 individuals. With 88 people still missing, the death toll is expected to rise. The fires, which began on October 8th, have charred over 220,000 acres of land and displaced thousands from their homes. Warming Northern climates and unusually high wind speeds of 50mph accelerated the Tubbs fire in Santa Rosa into a raging blaze that scorched mountains and destroyed nearby homes. Now, a little over a week since the fires began, the story of a heroic dog named Odin, who risked his life to protect a herd of goats, arises from the ashes of the blaze.

Deer looking for a safe place during a wildfire.

Deer looking for a safe place during a wildfire.

As the deadly flames of the Tubbs Fire tore through his property, Roland Tembo Hendel loaded his family, cats, and dogs into the car. At least, the dogs that would follow him. Odin, the family’s stubborn and fearless Great Pyrenees refused to abandon the goats that he was responsible for. Faced with the decision to leave behind his beloved dog or put his family in certain danger, Roland bid a sad farewell to Odin.

Roland described via Facebook that “even under the best of circumstances it is nearly impossible to separate Odin from the goats when he takes over the close watch from his sister Tessa after nightfall. I made a decision to leave him, and I doubt I could have made him come with us if I tried.”

Escaping with their lives and the contents of their pockets, Roland wrote on Facebook, “when we had outrun the fires I cried, sure that I had sentenced Odie to death, along with our precious family of bottle-raised goats.” But Odin—whose is named after the Norse God— proved to be the family’s “miracle”.

Preparing for the worst, Roland recounted via Facebook that as they returned to the “smoldering wasteland” and ruins of their home, they were miraculously greeted by a limping Odin and the eight goats that were left in his care. Odin survived the flames that took the life of one of Hendel’s neighbors — Lynne Powell — with burned fur, melted whiskers, and several deer who huddled around him for safety.

Odin and the Goats. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

Odin and the Goats. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

odin and goats

The remains of the Hendel Family home. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

Send in the Goats

Meanwhile, suburban hillsides across Southern California have seen an increase in goats working to chomp away at overgrown brush and dry vegetation. As population growth pushes human habitation deeper into fire-vulnerable areas, risk of structural damage, injury, and even death are on the rise.

Traditional clearing methods like the prescribed burn— a fire deliberately set to clear out the threatening dry fuel— can too easily get out of hand. While some fire-prone terrain can be too rocky for mechanical equipment or expose expensive workers to uneven poison oak infested grounds, goats are almost always up for the job.

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This past summer, the Havasi Foundation snapped a photo of goats chomping away at the grass on the hillside. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi.

Since the story has gone viral,  Odin’s family has been showered with love and support and Odin himself enjoyed a large steak dinner. Other victims of the recent fires have not been so lucky.  Currently, wildfires continue to burn through Northern California, Portugal and Spain— claiming the lives of over 100 innocent victims unable to escape the flames.  As the climate continues to change, it is important to keep areas of dry grass manicured and educate yourselves on your local fire plans. If you hear of a wildfire burning in your area, please don’t wait—evacuate as soon as possible.


 

After the Hurricane- Wildlife Watch

All week reports from a water-logged Florida, Texas, and the Carribean have been pouring in. Torrential downpours and massive flooding have devastated communities as Hurricanes Harvey and Irma passed through.  Many in the world watched in shock as the sea stormed the barriers, rushing through the streets of Miami to climb the lower levels of high-rises and tearing a path through the Carribean. Without discrimination, the maelstrom claimed humans, homes, and history for its own, leaving piles of debris as the only reminder of what formerly stood. Emergency services were called in to rescue evacuated families and their pets as their homes became victims of the flood.

Accounts of the next storm system, Tropical Storm Jose, have made their way to headlines  and the East Coast of the US is bracing itself for its projected touchdown later this week.

Flooded Homes Near Lake Huston After Hurricane Harvey. Photo Courtesy of NBC News and Getty Images. 2017

Flooded Homes Near Lake Huston After Hurricane Harvey. Photo Courtesy of NBC News and Getty Images. 2017

 

It has been nearly three weeks since Harvey flooded 28,000 square miles of Texas, and almost a week since the Irma struck the Caribbean and Florida. As the flood waters recede, over 200 million cubic yards of debris have been revealed in Texas alone. The extent of damage from Irma, which is still rolling through the country as a smaller tropical storm, has yet to be determined. Today the death toll for Harvey and Irma stands somewhere around 125 people, and hundreds of billions of dollars in property damage has been reported thus far.

Unaccounted for in the post-storm figures are the wildlife populations that could not relocate to higher ground when flood waters were rising. Over the past three weeks, the World Animal Protection Charity has sent emergency teams to Texas and Florida to rescue and care for wildlife. Teams of professional rescuers and volunteers have spent countless hours locating and rehabilitating injured animals following the storms. While clean up efforts in affected areas are well underway, it will take months for teams of experts to understand the full scale impact on wildlife.

Chickens perch on the roof of a hennery to escape rising floodwaters after Typhoon Utor hit Maoming, Guangzhou province August 15, 2013. Photo Courtesy of Reuters. 2017

Chickens perch on the roof of a hennery to escape rising floodwaters after Typhoon Utor hit Maoming, Guangzhou province August 15, 2013. Photo Courtesy of Reuters. 2017

Pets Rescued From Flooded Homes. Photographer: Luke Sharrett/Bloomberg via Getty Images

 

Hurricane Irma Leaves Manatees Stranded 

Last Sunday, Hurricane Irma was still 100 miles away from Tampa when it sucked the water out of shallow Sarasota Bay, an ideal habitat for manatees. The Florida Wildlife Commission had received several calls about stranded manatees, also known as sea cows,  when a passerby and two sheriffs noticed two manatees beached in the newly-dried bay. In a heroic effort to save the protected marine animals, the sheriffs rolled the 1000 pound manatees onto a sheet and dragged them over 100 yards to the sea.

Beached Manatee In Sarasota Bay During Irma. Photo Courtesy of @ManateeSheriff on Twitter. 2017

Beached Manatee In Sarasota Bay During Irma. Photo Courtesy of @ManateeSheriff on Twitter. 2017

 

When a Tree Falls

Trees provide a habitat for already vulnerable species. During a hurricane, high winds can uproot trees and displace the animal tenants living within. Many bird species that use trees as a convenient shelter have the ability to migrate to drier areas, and often times they are aware of a storm before it arrives. Ornithologists describe that most birds can sense even the slightest changes in barometric pressure, which makes them a kind of a living barometer. Once the message has been received that barometric pressure is low, they take flight and head for dryer areas. However, powerful winds can blow the migrating birds off of their course. At best, these birds can reroute themselves back to their homes once the storms have ended, but often they are injured or weakened and have been deprived of food so many do not survive. Both Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma intersected the beginning of the annual fall migration, which according to ornithologists, guarantees some level of bird displacement.

In certain cases, birds do not have the opportunity to migrate away from the storm. Take the red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina’s Marion National Forest for an example.  When Hurricane Hugo hit the area in September 1989, approximately 60 percent of the 500 groups of birds perished when 87 percent of the trees containing cavities where they lived were destroyed. Thanks to extensive rehabilitation efforts, populations have been returned to their numbers in the years since Hugo slammed the state.

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Photo from Flickr. 2017

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Photo from Flickr. 2017

How Are Hurricanes Formed? 

As deep layers of warm ocean waters stoke an emerging thunderstorm into a mature state, a hurricane is born. Sea surface temperature is one of five factors that influence the formation of tropical cyclones, defined as rapidly rotating storm systems categorized by low-pressure centers, the presence of thunderstorms, heavy rain, strong winds, and low-level atmospheric circulation. Specifically, a hurricane is a tropical cyclone occurring in the Atlantic and northeastern Pacific Oceans.   The warm water temperatures of the Gulf of Mexico make it a notorious landing point for hurricanes. According to oceanographers, temperatures of the oceans in the Gulf of Mexico are the highest that they have ever been in recorded history and these spikes in temperature can account for some of the increase in hurricane potency. Warm water is only one of the ingredients needed to produce a full-fledged hurricane. Humidity, wind shear, and a generally unstable atmosphere are also required to help craft the “perfect storm.”

Ironically, the “perfect storm” is just that for certain plants and animals that survive its force. While hurricanes can be devastating to many wild animal populations, other animals manage to survive and thrive during and after the event. Orchids, gopher frogs, raccoons, and brown bears are among the animals that are generally positively impacted by a hurricane (so long as they survive).  Orchids use intense winds to spread their seeds, frogs breed in heavy rainfall,  raccoons scavenge for food, and bears use the fallen trees as shelter.

Sea turtles, marine life, small ground animals, livestock, and domestic pets can all fall victim to the destruction of habitats and the scarcity of food sources that are associated with hurricanes.

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Baby Sea Turtle on the Florida Beach. Reuters. 2017

Wild West Wildlife Rescuers Rehabilitate Over 200 Baby Squirrels After Harvey. Photo from Facebook. 2017

Wild West Wildlife Rescuers Rehabilitate Over 200 Baby Squirrels After Harvey. Photo from Facebook. 2017

As another Tropical Storm Jose matures in the distance, rescue efforts are still underway for the countless animal victims of the latest natural disasters. While it’s too early to fully estimate impacts of Hurricane Harvey or Hurricane Irma on wildlife, it is important to recognize that recovery efforts will need to extend beyond far beyond human development. Locals in affected areas have begun reporting injured animals to their local officials and people around the world are making donations to support habitat conservation and protection efforts. You can help provide relief for human and wildlife foundations by donating to organizations that you trust.  For more information on individual organizations, click here.

Until next week, remember to appreciate your life, give to those in need,  and keep exploring your world.

Hummingbird’s Health and Hibernation

We are back! Happy New Year everyone, we hope you have been having many nature adventures in our absence. In the past few weeks I know I certainly have had all kinds of nature adventures: being followed by a coyote, stumbling upon some skunks, being buzzed by some hummingbirds and much more. . . But the joy of nature walks and nature stories truly lies in sharing them! Please feel free to share your nature stories with us. You can submit your stories to facebook at: Havasi Wilderness Foundation.

One of our local Santa Barbara Anna's Hummingbird Photo Credit: Sandor Havasi

One of our local Santa Barbara Anna’s Hummingbird Photo Credit: Sandor Havasi

Recently a friend of Havasi Wilderness Foundation observed that where she lived (up north in Oregon) hummingbirds are spotted all year round, much like in our California climate, however these hummingbirds stay even in the winter. Hummingbirds can be spotted even during the snowy months–buzzing about in spite of the frigid temperatures. Now we know that the postal service runs rain or shine, but apparently even certain types of hummingbirds tough it out. But how do they do it? Hummingbirds have such a high metabolism and are so small it seems impossible that they would be able to survive. They don’t have blubber, they don’t have fur, they don’t have those warm downy feathers that many other bird species use to survive winters. They couldn’t possibly hibernate like bears. . . If we see them they must be awake and active. Continue Reading →

Only You: Being Aware of Fire Hazards Entering Fire-season

fire damage

Fire damage from the Topanga Fire

Recently, there have been many news stories popping up about wildfires and with the California drought still being an issue we wanted to take this opportunity to focus in on ways you can practically be aware of wildfires and areas that could be prone to wildfires near you! In fact over the past year (2015) 58,916 human-caused fires (also known as preventable fires) burned over 2,000,000 acres of land! That is a lot of acreage that is impacted, animals that have lost their homes, and people who have been displaced by the damage. . . But we can reduce this number by listening to our favorite bear! Continue Reading →

SLIME: Snails Save the Day

snail

Two snails cross the road to get to the other side.

Why would anyone want to study snails? A common reaction whenever people see a snail is to cry out “Ew! Gross!” or to try to smash it immediately. But snails are not gross in fact snails are incredible and they are actually a special species that tells scientists whether or not an environment is healthy! If there are snails and slugs that means that the environment is healthy because snails are considered to be an indicator species.

An indicator species is a species that is vital to the environment, and often are the most sensitive species in a region or ecosystem! Does that mean that their feelings get hurt a lot? Or they are super emotional? Not necessarily. . . it just means that these particular animals (for example snails) respond to disease, pollution or even climate change in such a dramatic way that they are considered to be an early warning to monitoring biologists. Why does that matter? Well in order to make sure that the environment is healthy for all the wildlife (and ourselves) monitoring biologists will give these indicator species extra special attention!

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California Science Center Coral Triangle Lunch

Review of the luncheon by Marilyn T. Fordney:

We recently attended another “lunch and learn” at the California Science Center, in Los Angeles, because of our annual support of environmental education. Thanks to the hard work of the California Science Center Foundation, both children and adults can visit its incredible interactive and educational exhibits for free and learn throughout the year. The topic for the “lunch and learn” was “The Coral Triangle” and Dr. Paul Barber, a professor and evolutionary and conservation geneticist from UCLA was our speaker. The information we heard about the Coral Triangle is only just beginning to be introduced to the public but it’s importance to our planet is vital!

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Founder Marilyn T. Fordney with Dr. Barber

If you’ve never heard of the Coral Triangle, you aren’t alone. . .  The Coral Triangle is a very special area on our planet. It is the largest and most biologically diverse marine system area of the earth and is known as the Amazon of the Ocean. It is the global epicenter. There is incredible biodiversity with over 500 hard coral species across an area encompassing 6 countries and covering 6 million km2Biodiversity means a variety of forms of life within an ecosystem, biome, or planet and the Coral Triangle is an incredible example of a biodiverse marine system! For example, in the Carribean, there are two coral species known as staghorn coral and elkhorn coral. In the Coral Triangle, there are over 100 species!

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Film Review: National Parks is Quite the Adventure!

3D Screening of National Parks

3D Screening of National Parks

Famous naturalist and nature enthusiast John Muir once said “Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul alike.” Nature is a wonderful unifier of people from all walks of life, because whether you climb a mountain or look up at the stars you are reminded of how big and beautiful the world is and how very unique you are in that big world.

A few weeks ago our nonprofit director and his assistant were able to experience this same feeling of awe and wonder when they were invited to attend a special reception and preview screening of the film entitled “National Parks Adventure 3D” at the IMAX theater in Los Angeles. The film itself highlights the vast wonders of 40 of our 400 amazing National Parks here in the United States.  Director Greg MacGillivray was there to explain some of the details and thoughts they had when making this amazing film. He and his staff chose to celebrate the 100 year anniversary of the US National Park Service by documenting and filming spectacularly wild and beautiful places, such as Yellowstone, Yosemite, the Everglades, Redwoods, Arches National Park and many more.
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Wilderness Observation: Drought in California Chaparral

When I visited my grandparents for Thanksgiving a couple weeks ago, we took a family hike up in the chaparral region near Ojai and Lake Casitas. Growing up we visited that area incredibly frequently, but I had not been there in over 3 years! My grandparents had lived there for many years and I was very familiar with the trees and the wildlife that live there. If you have never visited, I highly recommend it. It is an incredibly beautiful example of our native California wildlife and of the incredible native plant species. While we were hiking we saw quails, migrating birds, pomegranate trees, mistletoe, California live oaks, western sycamore trees, coyote bush, and many other plants and animals.

 LAKE CASITAS BOAT RAMP FAR-FAR OUT OF THE PRESENT WATER LEVEL.

Lake Casitas boat ramp far from the water level

But as we walked, it became increasingly apparent that the California drought we have been experiencing has taken a toll on the native plants. While the open grasslands were beautiful and amber colored, the dry grasses only scratched the surface of the lack of water. The drought is evident in the withered plants, in the stressed leaves, and in the dry grasses. Then there were the trees that broke up the dry grasses. The tall oak and western sycamore trees and others broke up the dry yellowed stalks of grasses. But their green leaves were curled up or clustered in small bunches. Many trees had lost a good majority of their leaves prematurely—not due to fall. Those that were still with leaves upon closer inspection had marks of struggle, the leaves were browned or broken or insect eaten/diseased. These trees are fighting so hard to survive in an extended four year (at least) extreme drought period! Continue Reading →

Wilderness Journal: International Journey to Braunschweig, Germany

Germany

Amazing fall trees in Germany

I just spent the past week recuperating from jet lag but I wanted to share some of my international nature observations! I spent about a week in a relatively urban/suburban German town and really was able to see so many animals and plants thriving in an urban setting. Everywhere I looked there were cobbled streets with grasses and dandelions or other green things sprouting up. And then there were the trees! Germany is so much greener and full of trees than California. There were big tough trunks and large deciduous trees that were beginning to shake off their leaves. I was in heaven, it was finally fall! Not just the time of the year for fall, but the fall weather was in full swing. It took my breath away, both literally and figuratively. The dry cold wind blowing was enough to make you gasp for breath, but added to the fall beauty. The crisp breezes caught and tugged at the clinging yellow and orange leaves, tossing them into the gray sky and onto the gray road. It was a refreshing break from the excessively hot and humid fall we have had in California this year, which has felt more like summer than fall.

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