Archive | October, 2017

Coral Crisis- Bleaching on the Barrier Reef

Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are in crisis, dying at an alarming rate worldwide. Since 1975, 80-90% of the reefs in the Florida Keys have lost their living coral (NOAA.org). Overall, around 25% of corals on Earth have disappeared and the speed of degradation has dangerously accelerated over the past decade. Marine biologists predict that if deterioration continues at this rate, there will be no active coral to study by the year 2050. If these estimations are correct, within our lifetime we may witness the expiration of some of the most integral members of Earth’s ecology.

Netflix’s original documentary, “Chasing Coral,” highlights the rapid decline of the world’s coral and the cause of the bleaching events leading to its demise. Jeff Orlowski, the film’s director, Richard Vevers, the founder of the Ocean Agency and a crew of passionate scientists, divers, and photographers spent over four months documenting life in and around the Great Barrier Reef to highlight the impact of climate change on coral reefs. As the film points out, prior to “Chasing Coral” much of this devastating loss has been overlooked by the media, largely because people view the ocean as out of sight, out of mind. Vevers, an ex-advertising executive, views this ignorance as an issue with the way the ocean is advertised and hopes that this documentary brings mainstream attention and interest to the travesties happening beneath the ocean’s surface.

19437595_1704219369882193_9011812098570543886_n

Coral: A Quiet Sophistication

Known as the “rainforests of the sea,” coral reefs are the greatest expression of ocean life and the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet. A single reef can house over one million animal and plant species and include up to 1000 different species of corals.  Among the 1000 species of reef-building coral, one will find a multitude of varying sizes, shapes, and textures. Some coral species look like large underwater rocks, while others uphold intricate branching patterns that give them the appearance of a delicate fan.

In the film, Dr. Ruth Gates, Coral Reef Biologist at the Hawaiian Institute of Marine Biology, describes that coral is an animal made up of thousands of small structures called polyps. Each polyp is a circular mouth surrounded by tentacles. The inside of the coral is filled with microalgae (small plants) that use photosynthesis to produce food for the animal during the daytime. At night, the corals come alive and the animal extends its tentacles, catching whatever passes by it. For the intricately connected coral animal and the plants living within, symbiosis is extreme. Without the microalgae, corals are at risk of starvation.

 

Coral Bleaching

Coral bleaching is a stress response (like a fever in humans) to warming waters. As the temperature on land escalates, the ocean helps absorb some of that increase. According to recent studies, the ocean has absorbed 93% of the warming created by humans since the 1970’s (IUCN report 2016). When water temperatures spikes above normal range, corals undergo bleaching— a process in which the inside tissues of stressed corals have an impaired ability to photosynthesis and feed the animals. To preserve their polyp and skeletal structure, the animals get rid of plants that are no longer functional and leave behind naked tissues. These bright-white skeletal structures are a far cry from the brilliant corals found in a healthy reef.

During a bleaching event, large swaths of coral reef whiten over the course of a few short weeks. Bleaching itself does not kill the coral. The bright-white pigment pictured below shows the skeleton of a coral that is still alive but without nutrients.  In losing their internal food systems, corals begin to starve. As the coral dies, its surface becomes covered in fuzzy micro algae and the aquatic life surrounding the coral must find refuge elsewhere.

Both shallow (between 3 and 150 feet) and deep (up to 450 feet deep) reefs can be found in nearly every corner of the world. Presently, two-thirds of them are endangered.

 

A Shift In Thinking

Currently, the Great Barrier Reef is the largest living thing on our planet, and in 2016, 29% of it was lost. “Chasing Coral” has drawn the attention of the masses, so there’s no doubt that many will flock to the remaining reefs to catch the last glimpse of their beauty before their predicted eradication. But according to the film, losing the Great Barrier Reef has actually got to mean something. We cannot just let it die so that it becomes photos in an old textbook—it has got to be a wake-up call. After watching “Chasing Coral” and pouring through research,  I began to wonder what it would look like if humans viewed the reefs as vital parts of the Earth’s ecosystem rather than as tourist attractions that are marketed to stimulate local economies. What would it mean if each visitor was forced to study the delicate ecosystem in which they are visitors? Would a transition from voyeur to citizen scientist generate enough conversation for people to realize the detrimental ripple effect that consumption, pollution, waste, and exploitation has on our environment? One can only hope.

Odin The Brave- A Tale Of Friendship And Survival Amid The Horrors Of A Wildfire

Northern California firefighters have spent the last week battling 14 separate infernos that claimed the lives of over 40 individuals. With 88 people still missing, the death toll is expected to rise. The fires, which began on October 8th, have charred over 220,000 acres of land and displaced thousands from their homes. Warming Northern climates and unusually high wind speeds of 50mph accelerated the Tubbs fire in Santa Rosa into a raging blaze that scorched mountains and destroyed nearby homes. Now, a little over a week since the fires began, the story of a heroic dog named Odin, who risked his life to protect a herd of goats, arises from the ashes of the blaze.

Deer looking for a safe place during a wildfire.

Deer looking for a safe place during a wildfire.

As the deadly flames of the Tubbs Fire tore through his property, Roland Tembo Hendel loaded his family, cats, and dogs into the car. At least, the dogs that would follow him. Odin, the family’s stubborn and fearless Great Pyrenees refused to abandon the goats that he was responsible for. Faced with the decision to leave behind his beloved dog or put his family in certain danger, Roland bid a sad farewell to Odin.

Roland described via Facebook that “even under the best of circumstances it is nearly impossible to separate Odin from the goats when he takes over the close watch from his sister Tessa after nightfall. I made a decision to leave him, and I doubt I could have made him come with us if I tried.”

Escaping with their lives and the contents of their pockets, Roland wrote on Facebook, “when we had outrun the fires I cried, sure that I had sentenced Odie to death, along with our precious family of bottle-raised goats.” But Odin—whose is named after the Norse God— proved to be the family’s “miracle”.

Preparing for the worst, Roland recounted via Facebook that as they returned to the “smoldering wasteland” and ruins of their home, they were miraculously greeted by a limping Odin and the eight goats that were left in his care. Odin survived the flames that took the life of one of Hendel’s neighbors — Lynne Powell — with burned fur, melted whiskers, and several deer who huddled around him for safety.

Odin and the Goats. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

Odin and the Goats. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

odin and goats

The remains of the Hendel Family home. Photo via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hucklesberries

Send in the Goats

Meanwhile, suburban hillsides across Southern California have seen an increase in goats working to chomp away at overgrown brush and dry vegetation. As population growth pushes human habitation deeper into fire-vulnerable areas, risk of structural damage, injury, and even death are on the rise.

Traditional clearing methods like the prescribed burn— a fire deliberately set to clear out the threatening dry fuel— can too easily get out of hand. While some fire-prone terrain can be too rocky for mechanical equipment or expose expensive workers to uneven poison oak infested grounds, goats are almost always up for the job.

Screen Shot 2017-10-16 at 9.58.23 PM

This past summer, the Havasi Foundation snapped a photo of goats chomping away at the grass on the hillside. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi.

Since the story has gone viral,  Odin’s family has been showered with love and support and Odin himself enjoyed a large steak dinner. Other victims of the recent fires have not been so lucky.  Currently, wildfires continue to burn through Northern California, Portugal and Spain— claiming the lives of over 100 innocent victims unable to escape the flames.  As the climate continues to change, it is important to keep areas of dry grass manicured and educate yourselves on your local fire plans. If you hear of a wildfire burning in your area, please don’t wait—evacuate as soon as possible.


 

Cassini-The Wonder of Saturn  

At the California Science Center’s latest Lunch and Learn, Project Manager and Mars Specialist, Devin Waller, walked a group of around 25 financial contributors of the CSC from the Sun to Saturn.  The distance from Saturn (the sixth planet from the sun) and the actual sun spans approximately 891 million miles. Our stroll through a mock model of the solar system built by Science Center employees wasn’t quite as far as that. The walk itself could have been completed in no more than 5 minutes had Devin not gifted us with the engineering and scientific perspectives involved in replicating our universe. Models like the one pictured below help students and visitors of the California Science Center understand the intricacies of space.

Ken Phillips and Devin Waller Give Insight Into Our Solar System. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi

Ken Phillips and Devin Waller share insights into our solar system. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi

 

We began at the Sun– a 4.5-billion-year old star that accounts for 99.86 percent of the mass in our solar system. Given its size, it is estimated that over one million Earths could fit inside of the sun! This giant ball of gas is composed of 70 percent hydrogen and 28 percent helium. As the two gases react, intense amounts of energy and heat are created. Without this energy,  there would be no life on Earth.

 An ultraviolet telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory captured this spectacular view of the prominence at 13:19 UT on June 9th.


An ultraviolet telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory captured this spectacular view of the prominence at 13:19 UT on June 9th.

 

Next we arrived at the smallest and innermost planet, Mercury.  Mercury orbits the sun in just 88 days, making the shortest orbit of any planet. Each complete orbit around the sun represents one “year,” while a rotation on a planet’s axis represents one “day.”  Its temperature ranges from -297 on the side opposite the sun to + 800 degrees on the side facing the sun. Because Mercury is so close to the sun, it is hard to directly observe from Earth except during the hours of dawn or twilight.

The second planet we visited was Venus, a celestial body located 67 million miles from the Sun. Known as the rocky planet, Venus has the longest rotation of the solar system family and has a scorching temperature of 896 degrees.  It takes 224 Earth days for Venus to experience one “day.” Unlike most other planets in the Solar System, which rotate on their axes in a counter-clockwise direction, Venus rotates clockwise (this is called “retrograde” rotation).  Our home, Earth, is the third planet in line from the sun. One rotation on Earth takes 24 hours with a complete orbit around the sun lasting 365 days. Our planet’s average temperature is a balmy 61 degrees. In contrast, Mars is a rocky planet 141,700,000 miles from the sun that has a temperature of -81 degrees. With its thin atmosphere and lack of liquid water, winds drive the global conditions. NASA space projects have been studying Mars since the 1960s. According to NASA, the goal of the Mars Exploration Program has been to provide a continuous flow of scientific information and discovery through a carefully-selected series of robotic orbiters, landers and mobile laboratories interconnected by a high-bandwidth Mars/Earth communications network. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars represent the terrestrial planets: inner planets closest to the Sun that are composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

As our tour moved on to the outer planets, we stopped at a replica of the gas giant known as Jupiter—the largest planet in our Solar System.  Like the Sun, Jupiter is composed of hydrogen and helium yet it is a cold planet (minus 234 degrees Fahrenheit). Its massive size and distance from the sun (483,500,000 miles) makes it so that it takes 11.86 years for Jupiter to complete an orbit. It has 67 known moons and like Saturn, Jupiter has rings.  Unlike the vivid, icy rings of Saturn, Jupiter’s rings are subtle, sandy structures.

The Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)

The Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)

 

Our final stops on the walking tour took us to Saturn, one of the most visually stunning celestial bodies in our Solar System, and a replica of the spacecraft Cassini, which spent over a decade studying Saturn. We had the great privilege of listening as Dr. Jo Pitesky, an engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory who worked with Cassini from 2001 until 2017, provide details about Cassini and its twenty-year mission.  Cassini was the latest NASA spacecraft to explore Saturn, completing its journey on September 15th, 2017. Cassini launched in 1997 and arrived at Saturn seven years later. In that time, the spacecraft captured stunning photos of the planet’s weather systems (including the changing seasons in the Northern Hemisphere), magnificent rings, and it’s 62 moons while providing invaluable data on Saturn and its atmosphere.  Cassini viewed, listened, smelled, and even tasted Saturn’s moons– and what it learned about them is nothing short of remarkable. Probing Saturn’s icy moons, Cassini discovered that water is continually spewing out of jets around the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. It also found liquid water on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.   These extraordinary discoveries indicate that Enceladus and Titan have all of the ingredients necessary for life and make future space exploration all the more exciting. The “Grand Finale Orbits” that carried Cassini to its end helped solve longtime mysteries such as the planet’s rate of rotation, the length of a day on Saturn, and the mass of its stunning rings. Dr. Pitesky made her commitment to the project transparent, explaining that she could spend weeks describing Cassini accomplishments.

The start of Cassini’s final voyage began on September 12th, 2017.  Cassini continued transmitting messages as long as possible until the force of Saturn’s atmosphere overpowered the spacecraft thrusters and Cassini could no longer make contact with Earth. At 3:31 am (PDT) on September 15th, 2017, Cassini’s final signal was received. As Dr. Jo Pitesky narrated the extraordinary life of Cassini and its final descent to Saturn, it was hard to find a dry eye in the room.  Showing us photos of the thousands of men and women involved in the Cassini mission– to provide information and educate the world– she likened its journey to the following quote.

“Though here at journey’s end I lie
in darkness buried deep,
beyond all towers strong and high,
beyond all mountains steep,
above all shadows rides the Sun
and Stars for ever dwell:
I will not say the Day is done,
nor bid the Stars farewell.

J. R. R. Tolkein

Lola West, Dr. Jo Pitesky, and Marilyn Fordney. Photo Credit: Alex havasi

Lola West, Dr. Jo Pitesky, and Marilyn Fordney. Photo Credit: Alex havasi

Urban Coyote Conflicts

Growing up in the suburbs, my friends and I spent many weekend nights powerwalking through our neighborhoods, deep in conversation. It was an excellent way to process through our angst-laden teenage years while maintaining our physique. Though a few street lamps could be seen scattered about the city’s larger streets, the blackness of night was for the most part unfettered by light. In my youth, I appreciated this obscurity and reveled in the fact that most nights we had the streets to ourselves. One night, as we walked towards an intersection lit only by the red hand of the cross walk sign, we heard the sound of movement in the nearby leaves. Realizing that we were no longer alone, I turned my head in the direction of the noise and saw two yellow eyes peering back at me. My first thought was to run. My second was to scream. Ultimately, fear kept me frozen in place and silent as a mouse. The eyes grew larger and as the body they were attached to came closer, I found myself within feet of a large coyote.  I watched in amazement as the coyote made its way through the crosswalk, keeping within the lines.

Screen Shot 2017-09-27 at 2.37.26 PM

The Urban Coyote

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are smart. In response to shrinking wild spaces, these cunning creatures have migrated from their origins in the American southwest to nearly every corner of Northern and Central America (save for Hawaii). This forced migration has encouraged new survival instincts in coyotes obliged to thrive in pastoral and suburban regions as well as densely populated urban landscapes.  A coyote’s versatility extends to its diet, which changes based on what’s available in its environment. Typically, their diet consists of rabbits, squirrels, mice, rats, insects, reptiles and wild berries. In the wild, coyotes generally keep their distance from humans. Yet, as natural predators and barriers of habitat shrink, the interface between wild and domestic begins to expand. Over the past two decades, America has seen a swelling of inner-city coyote populations. In that time, generations of coyotes who have never known undeveloped spaces have been born into metropolitan areas that lack green landscape. These native city-slickers have become adept at surviving in urban settings- foraging through dumpsters and compost bins, navigating crosswalks, and consuming small domestic pets. Weighing anywhere from 15-50 pounds, their smaller frames allow them an agility that makes hopping an eight foot fence in the suburbs nearly effortless.

Screen Shot 2017-10-01 at 10.17.34 PM

A Canine Confrontation

Every year, local police and wildlife organizations receive thousands of reports of coyotes disrupting the domestic sphere. For the most part, human encounters with a singular coyote or a small pack have not proven consistently dangerous. However, as urban coyote populations rise, reports of attacks on individuals and pets have amplified. In 2009, 19 year-old Taylor Mitchell died of blood loss after coyotes bit her while she was walking on a trail in Eastern Canada. Though not an urban attack, sensational media often draw from the experience with Mitchell to illuminate the perils of human-coyote interaction. Experts indicate that the keys to maintaining safety are to keep coyotes from getting accustomed to humans and to limit interaction. Hazing, the practice of scaring off coyotes with deterrents- shouting, clapping, blowing air horns, or spraying with water- is considered the basis of coyote management plans which seek to discourage coyotes from becoming too relaxed in their urban surroundings.  Pupping season lasts from August until January. During these months, protective mothers are more likely to act in defense of their dens. If you encounter a coyote at this time, the best thing to do is to slowly and calmly walk away without turning your back on the coyote. Stay tall and assertive as you leave the area, even if it means walking backwards.

This Way Forward

The relationship between human and coyote is extremely complex and warrants a deeper look. It is significant to note that human development continues to displace wildlife from their homes.  While property on the foothills is desirable, one should prepare themselves to encounter emigrant wildlife. The Urban Coyote Initiative is a group of photojournalists who aim to shed light on the lives and behaviors of coyotes living in close proximity to humans.  Organizations like these remove the mystery of urban coyote behavior and lay the foundation for a more harmonious inhabiting of shared space. You can see some of their work here.

Chaparral Coyote. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi.

Chaparral Coyote. Photo Credit: Alex Havasi.